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Desiderius Erasmus (c.1466/9-1536)

Synopsis

ERASMUS, Desiderius, the most brillant representative of humanistic culture at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and the head of a movement in the interest of a reformation of ecclesiastical abuses which prepared the way for the Protestant Reformation. His life divides itself naturally into three periods; the first, lasting till 1507, was the period of gradual emancipation from the fetters of his age; the second lasted till 1519, and marked his greatest reputation and most efficient reformatory activity; the last is the period of conflict, isolation, and final abandonment of the Reformation movement.

Erasmus was b. in Rotterdam, and d. in Basel 1567. The date of birth is variously put in 1466, 1467, and 1469. Oct. 28, 1465, is probably the right one, and is favored by the statement of Rhenanus, that Erasmus died in his seventieth year, as by his own statement (Ep. 207, Feb. 26, 1516), "I have entered my fifty-first year." He seems to have been born out of wedlock. His father, Gerhard Roger, according to some accounts, was a priest at the time; but according to others he did not enter a convent till after the event. Erasmus was sent to the famous school of Hegius at Deventer, attended and the two thousand scholars, His parents died in his thirteenth year, and, being cheated by a guardian out of his inheritance, he entered the convent school of Herzogenbusch, and subsequently took vows in the convent of Emaus, at Steyn. At a later period (1514) he calls this step the direst misfortune of his life. In 1491 he went into the service of the Bishop of Cambray, who sent him to Paris to conclude his studies. While attending the College of Montaigu he contracted a disease, which forced him to seek relief in Holland. Returning to Paris, he acted as tutor to several English youths, one of whom, Lord Mountjoy, induced him to visit England in 1498. Erasmus resided for a while at Oxford, and formed a close friendship with More and Colet. In the face of Henry VII.’s offer of a house, and a pension amounting to a thousand pounds in present money, he returned to the Continent. In 1500 his Adagia (a collection of proverbs and witty sayings derived fromn ancient writers) appeared, and in 1502 the Enchiridion Militis Christiani, which, he says, was "designed to counteract the error of those who place piety in ceremonies and external observances, but neglect its very essence" (Ep. 102). In 1505 he edited Valla’s Annotations to the New Testament with a preface, which calls for a return to the Greek text, and its grammatical exposition as the fundamental conditions of a right understanding of the Scriptures. In 1506 he visited Italy, taken the degree of doctor of divinity at Turin, and receiving from the highest dignitaries marks of distinction. In 1509 he returned to England, forming on the way the plan of his Encomium Moriae ("The Praise of Folly"), which subsequently appeared with a dedication to More in 1511. Here the second period of his career begins.

Erasmus was now in the zenith of his fame, a fame which has never been surpassed in the annals of men of letters. He remained in England about five years, a part of the time lecturing at Cambridge. Returning to Brabant, he was elected by the archduke one of his counsellors, and subsequently to a similar position by Charles V. From 1515 to 1521 he resided in Brussels, Antwerp, and Louvain (Ep. 354). A papal brief gave him a much desired relief from the duties and dress of his monastic vow. From 1514 all his writings were published by Froben at Basel. This necessitated frequent journeymgs to Switzerland through Germany. These journeys were triumphant processions; scholars, councils, and bishops doing him homage. his correspondence at this period was enormous, and included princes, the highest prelates, and the Pope himself. In Germany a party grew up called the "Erasmians," which regarded him as a leader of a new movement in the church as well as in the department of letters. Among the writings of this period are a school-book, de Duplici Copia Verborum ac Reruni, 1512, and the Colloquia Familiaria, 1518, 1522. much enlarged in 1526. The latter is the most read of all Erasmus’ writings. It contains the keenest sarcasm, and wittiest sallies against conventual life, fasting, pilgrimages, and the worship of saints, he edited numerous editions and translations of classic authors and the fathers, the most valuable of which is that of Jerome. The most important of all Erasmus’ works appeared in 1516. It had a decided influence upon the Reformation. It was an edition of the Greek Testament under the title of Novum. Instrumentum omne, diligenter ab Erasmo Roterodamo recognitum et emendatum, etc. Besides the text, it contained a Latin translation, which departs quite largely from the Vulgate; and annotations justifying these departures, explaining different passages, and condemning frequently, by comparison with apostolic teaching, the excesses and ignorance of the monks. The work was prefaced with a dedication to Leo X. to stamp it with the sanction of the Church. An Introduction, composed of three parts, exhorts to the study of Scripture. The text was faulty, and inferior to that of the Complutensian Polyglot, which, although completed two years previously, did not appear till 1520. The printer’s errors were corrected in subsequent editions, but the editorial faults remained. This text had a very large circulation. Within a few decades, thirty unauthorized reprints were made. Erasmus himself sent out four more editions. Luther’s translation was based upon the second edition (1519); and in the third (1522) the editor restored to the text 1 John v. 7, "ne cui foret ansa calumniandi."... In 1517 he began to publish the Paraphrases of the Epistles and Gospels, which also exerted an extensive influence upon the Reformation.

In these writings Erasmus is in many points the precursor of the Reformation. his satire against the ecclesiastical abuses and corruption of the day is keen and bold. He also made the Scriptures the standard of doctrine and life in the Church. They had disabused his own mind of prejudices in favor of the specific holiness of cloistral and celibate life. With the Reformers he thus far agreed. He differed in particulars equally important. They found the essence of Christianity in the reconciliation of the sinner to God and his sense of the forgiveness of sin. Erasmus regarded Christ from another standpoint, as the exemplar of all virtue, and the restorer of moral order to the world. The Reformers were Augustinian in their theology, he Pelagian. Erasmus treated with somewhat of indifference the doctrinal part of Christianity, and at times estimated the morality of Greece and Rome so high as to obliterate the line between it and that of Christianity (Enchir., ii., etc.).

There were certain defects of character, and certain qualities of disposition, which explain the failure of Erasmus to understand and advocate the Reformation. his opposition to the state of the Church had proceeded froni esthetic feeling, rather than from moral indignation, he lacked the enthusiasm of a moral cause. He says he would rather sacrifice a part of the truth than destroy peace (Ep. 643, Dec. 25, 1522). After long vacillation, in which the fear of man comes out only too conspicuously, be cut loose from the Reformation.

The third period of Erasmus’ life is marked by a complete rupture with the Reformers. The most prominent of these attributed their emancipation from the dominion of the Church to his writings. He was popularly classed with them. But Luther saw deeper, and wrote to Lange (Letters 22, 29), "I fear that Erasmus does not sufficiently exalt Christ and the divine grace." But down to his letter of March 28, 1519, to Erasmus, he had the highest esteem for him, calling hint "our pride and hope." In his reply (Ep. 325), Erasmus, while applauding Luther’s attitude towards the friars, counsels him to be moderate and careful. After preserving, as long as it was possible, an attitude of neutrality, he gradually drew off from the German reformer, and studiously avoided his writings, lest he should be called upon to give an opinion upon them. [Mr. Froude keenly discriminates between these two men in his essay; "In Luther, belief in God was the, first priiiciple of life: in Erasmus it was an inference which might be taken away, and yet leave the world a very tolerable and habitable place," etc.] In spite of this, his enemies (Ep. 562) said Luther had sucked poison at his breast, or that he "laid the egg which Luther hatched out." Erasmus was, however, still opposed to persecution, and did not conceal his disgust at the papal bull of excommunication. But in a letter to Leo X., dated Sept. 13, 1520, he hastens to clear himself of all connection with the excommunicated reformer, and to declare that only his incapacity, and fear of stirring up strife, keep him from answering Luther (Ep. 529). Neither death nor life would induce him to leave the communion of the Church (Ep. 621, 645).

In 1521, no longer feeling himself safe in the Netherlands, Erasmus went to Basel to reside permanently. The open breach with Luther was now to occur. In September, 1524, he wrote, in answer to the reformer. his Diatribe de Libero Arbitrio. The work shows him to be unequal to the problem, and inferior to Luther, who replied in the De Servo Arbitrio. Erasmus wrote, in 1526, a feeble retort, - Hyperaspistes. Luther henceforth regarded Erasmus as a "sceptic and epicurean, an enemy of all true religion." In 1523 Erasmus broke off correspondence with Zwingli, and henceforth he regarded the Reformation as a calamity and a crime (Ep. 906). In contrast to his former utterances, he now ridiculed the marriage of the clergy, and proclaimed for the authority of the Church to punish heretics with death. The Reformation extended to Basel; and he removed to Freiburg, in Breisgau, where he heard with satisfaction the news of Zwingli’s and OEcolampadius’ death (Ep. 1206).

In the last decade of his life the most of his editions of the fathers appeared, - Hilary (1521), Irenæus (1526), Ambrose (1527), Augustine (1528), Epiphanius (1529), Chrysostom (1530), Origen (1531). His Modus Confitendi (1525) vindicated the confessional, and his Ecclesiastes (1535) is in many respects a valuable homiletic commentary. While bowing submissively to the Church, he still continued to ridicule ecclesiastical abuses. The Sorbonne, in 1527, condemned thirty-two articles extracted from his works, after having previously forbidden the circulation of the Colloquies in France. But the Pope’s friendship suffered no abatement. Paul III. offered to make him cardinal, but he declined on account of age. Erasmus returned to Basel in 1535, where he died of an attack of his old trouble, the stone, combined with dysentery. He died without the priest, but invoking the mercy of Christ. His body lies interred in the cathedral of Basel. A lifelike portrait by Hans Holbein hangs in the museum of the same city.

Rud Stähelin "Erasmus," Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 2. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. pp.753-755.

Bibliographies

Book or monograph E J Devereux, Checklist of English Translations of Erasmus. Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1968. Pbk. ISBN: 0901420026.

Primary Sources

Book or monograph Erasmus, Adagia, The Adages of Erasmas, translated & edited by Margaret Mann Phillips. Toronto: University of Toronto Press Inc., 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0802077404. pp.384. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erasmus, Ciceronianus. Anthony Levi, translator. Toronto / London: University of Toronto Press, 1986.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Complaint of Peace. Open Court Pubishing Co., 1977. Pbk. ISBN: 0875481957. pp.80. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erasmus, De Copia Verborum, translated & edited by Donald B. King & H. David Rex Milwaukee, 1963.
Book or monograph Erasmus, De Immensa Misericordia Dei, The Immense Mercy of God, W.P.A. Project, Sutro Library. San Francisco, 1940.
Book or monograph Erasmus, De Libero Arbitio, DIscourse on the Freedom of the Will, translated & edited by Ernest F. Winter. New York, 1961.
Book or monograph Erasmus, De Pueris Instituendis, Concerning the Aim and Method of Education, translated with introduction by William Harrison Woodward. Cambridge, 1904.
Book or monograph Erasmus: The Education of a Christian Prince with the Panegyric for Archduke Philip of AustriaErasmus, The Education of a Christian Prince with the Panegyric for Archduke Philip of Austria, Lisa Jardine, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 0521588111. pp.181. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erasmus, Enchiridion, translated & edited by Matthew Spinks in "Advocates of Reform," Christian Classics XIV. Philadelphia, 1953.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Enchiridion, translated & edited by Raymond Himelock. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1963. Hbk. ISBN: 0253200520. pp.228. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erasmus, Essential Erasmus, John Patrick Dolan, translator. New York: New American Library, 1964. Pbk. ISBN: 0452006732.pp.397. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erasmus, Handbook of the Militant Christian, translated & edited by Raymond Himelock. Notre Dame, Indiana, 1962.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Enconium Artis Medicae, Dutch & English translation. Amsterdam, 1927.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Enconium Moriae, The Praise of Folly, translated & edited by Hoyt Hudson. Princeton, 1941.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Enconium Moriae, The Praise of Folly, translated & edited by Hoyt Hudson. Princeton, 1941.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Epistolae, The Epistle of Erasmus, a selection translated & edited by Francis M. Nichols, 3 Vols. London, 1901-08.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Erasmus and His Times, G S Facer, ed. Bristol Classical Press, 1982. Pbk. ISBN: 0862920698.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Insitutio Principis Christiani, The Education of a Christian Prince, translated & Edited by Lester K. Born in Records of Civilization, XXVII. New York, 1936.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Exclusus, translated & edited by Paul Pascal with notes by J. Kelley Sowards. Bloomington, Indiana, 1968.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Querela Pacis, Our Struggle for Peace, translated & edited by José Chapiro. Boston, 1950.
Book or monograph Erasmus, The Complaint of Peace. Open Court, Chicago, 1917.
Book or monograph Erasmus, Vitae, Lives of Jeban Vitrier... and John Colet, translated by J.H. Lupton. London, 1885.
Book or monograph Albert Hyma, editor & translator. Erasmus and the Humanists. New York, 1930.
Book or monograph J.K. McConica, et al, eds. The Collected Works of Erasmus. Toronto, 1974-.
Book or monograph R.A.B. Mynors, et al, eds. The Correspondence of Erasmus. Toronto, 1974-.
Book or monograph Erasmus: On Copia of Words and IdeasErasmus, On Copia of Words and Ideas, Donal King, translator. Marquette University Press, 1963. Pbk. ISBN: 0874622123. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Opera Omnia, edited by C. Reedijk, et al. Amsterdam, 1969.
On-line Resource In Praise of Folly (Christian Classics Ethereal Library)
Book or monograph Erasmus: "The Praise of Folly" and Other WritingsErasmus, "The Praise of Folly" and Other Writings, Robert M. Adams, ed. W.W. Norton, 1990. Pbk. ISBN: 0393957497. pp.352. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erasmus: Praise of FollyErasmus, Praise of Folly, new edn. Betty Radice, translator. Harmondworth: Penguin Books, 1993. Pbk. ISBN: 0140446087. pp.188. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph A. Reeve & M.A. Screech, eds., Erasmus' Annotations on the New Testament: "Acts"; "Romans"; "I and II Corinthians", facsimile edition. Leiden: E J Brill, 1990. Hbk. ISBN: 9004091246. pp.293. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph E. Gordon Rupp, et al, eds. Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation.Philadelphia : Westminster Press, 1969. ISBN: 0664220177. pp. xv + 348. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erasmus, Utopia, David Wootton, translator. Hackett Publishing Co. Inc., 1999. Hbk. ISBN: 0872203778. pp.203. {Amazon.com}

Secondary Sources

Article in Journal or Book John William Aldridge, "The Hermeneutic of Erasmus," Basal Studies of Theology 2. (Zürich, 1966).
Book or monograph Allen: The Age of ErasmusPercy S. Allen, The Age of Erasmus. Wipf & Stock Publishers, 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 1579100848. pp.303.
Book or monograph Percy S. Allen, Erasmus' Services to Learning. London: Humphrey Milford, 1925. pp.20.
Article in Journal or Book Mrs. P.S. Allen, "Erasmus on Peace," Bijdragen van Vaderlandsche Geschiedemis en Oudheidkunde VII (1936): 235-40.
Book or monograph Theodore Charles Appelt, Studies in the Content and Sources of Erasmus' Adagia. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1942. pp.155.
Article in Journal or Book Cornelis Augustijn, "Erasmus and Menno Simons," Mennonite Quarterly Review 60.4 (1986): 497-508.
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "Castellio Concerning Heretics," Records of Civilisation XX (1935). Reprinted Octagon Press, 1965.
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "The Complaint of Peace of Erasmus, Classical and Christian Sources," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte XLII (1951). Reprinted in Collected Essays I. Boston, 1962.
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "The Unity of Mankind in the Classical-Christian Tradition," Albert Schweitzer Jubilee Book. Cambridge, MA, 1945. Reprinted in Collected Essays III. Boston, 1964.
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "The Paraphrases of Erasmus," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte LVII, 12. (1966).
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "Erasmus and Luther and the Dialogue Julius Exclusus," Festschrift Lau. Leipzig, 1967.
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "The Responsibilities of Power According to Erasmus of Rotterdam," The Responsibility of Power, Festschrift Holborn. New York, 1967.
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "Continuity of Thought in Erasmus," American Council of Learned Societies, XIX, 5 (May, 1968).
Article in Journal or Book Roland H. Bainton, "Erasmus and the Persecuted," Commemorative Volume. Louvain, 1969.
Book or monograph Roland H. Bainton, Erasmus of Christendom, new edn. Lion Publishing, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0745915124. pp.399. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Istvan Bejczy, "Erasmus Becomes a Netherlander," Sixteenth Century Journal 28.2 (1997): 387-399.
Book or monograph Istvan Pieter Bejczy, Erasmus and the Middle Ages: The Historical Consciousness of a Christian Humanist. Brill's Studies in Intellectual History, V. 106. Leiden: E J Brill, 2001. Hbk. ISBN: 9004122184. pp.219. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Bruce Ellis Benson, "Erasmus And The Correspondence With Johann Eck: A Sixteenth-Century Debate Over Scriptural Authority," Trinity Journal 6.2 (1985): 157- 165.
Book or monograph Peter G. Bietenholz, History and Biography in the Work of Erasmus of Rotterdam. Travaux d'humanisme et Renaissance ; no.87. Geneva: Libraire Droz, 1966. pp.110.
Book or monograph R.R. Bolgar, Classical Heritage and Its Beneficiaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Hbk. ISBN: 0521042771.
Article in Journal or Book Marjorie O'Rourke Boyle, "Erasmus and the 'Modern' Question : Was He Semi-Pelagian?" Archiv fur Reformationsgeschichte 75 (1984): 59-77.
Article in Journal or Book Brendan Bradshaw, "The Christian Humanism of Erasmus," Journal of Theological Studies 33.2 (1982): 411-447.
Article in Journal or Book A.J. Brown, "The Date of Erasmus' Latin Translation of the New Testament," Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 8 (1984): 351-80.
Book or monograph Fritz Caspari, Humanism and the Social Order in Tudor England, new edn. New York: Teachers College Press, 1968. pp. xii + 400.
Article in Journal or Book Joi Christians, "Erasmus and the New Testament: Humanist Scholarship or Theological Convictions?" Trinity Journal 19.1 (1998): 51-80.
Article in Journal or Book H.N. Cole, "Erasmus and his Diseases," Journal of the American Medical Association (February 16, 1952), CXLVIII, 7.
On-line Resource William W. Combs, "Erasmus and the Textus Receptus," Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 1.1 (1996): 35-53.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Erasmus the ReformerA.G. Dickens & Whitney R.D. Jones, Erasmus the Reformer, new edn. Methuen Publishing Ltd., 2000. Pbk. ISBN: 0413753301. pp.382.
Book or monograph Emerton: Desiderius Erasmus of RotterdamEphraim Emerton, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. University Press of the Pacific, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 1410200868. pp.572. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph G.S. Facer, Erasmus and His Times. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1999. Pbk. ISBN: 0865162131. pp.152. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Wallace K. Ferguson, "Renaissance Tendencies in the Religious Thought of Erasmus," Journal of the History of Ideas XV, 4 (Oct. 1934): 499-508.
Article in Journal or Book Wallace K. Ferguson, "The Church in a Changing World: A Contribution to the Understanding of the Renaissance," American Historical Review (Oct. 1953).
Book or monograph James Anthony Froude, Life and Letters of Erasmus, 1984. London: Longmans, 1910. pp. vi + 452.
Article in Journal or Book Angiolo Gambaro, "Erasmus and his English Patrons," The Library V, ser. IV, 1. (June 1949): 1-13.
Book or monograph Deno John Geanokoplos, Greek Scholars in Venice: Studies in the Dissemination of Greek Learning from Byzantium to Western Europe. Cambridge, MA / London: Harvard Univesity Press / Oxford University, 1962. pp.xiii + 348.
Book or monograph Myron Piper Gilmore, Humanists and Jurists: Six Studies in the Renaissance. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. pp. xiv + 184.
Book or monograph Myron B. Gilmore, The World of Humanism, 1453-1517 . New York: Harper & Row, 1952. Pbk. ISBN: 0061387509.
Article in Journal or Book Brian Gogan, "The Ecclesiaology of Erasmus of Rotterdam: A Genetic Account," Heythrop Journal 21.4 (1980): 393-411.
Article in Journal or Book Hanna H. Gray, "Renaissance Humanism: the Pursuit of Eloquence," Journal of the History of Ideas XXIV (1963): 497-511.
Article in Journal or Book Werner L. Gundersheimer, "Erasmus and the Christian Cabala," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes XXVI (1965): 33-53.
Book or monograph E. Harris Harbison, The Christian Scholar in the Age of the Reformation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983. Pbk. ISBN: 0802819753. pp.177. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Johan Huizinga, Erasmus of Rotterdam. Phaidon Press, 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 0714833665. pp.312.
Book or monograph Johan Huizinga, Erasmus and the Age of Reformation, new edn. Phoenix Press, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 1842124137. pp.268. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Albert Hyma, The Christian Renaissance. New York: Hamden, 1924.
Book or monograph Albert Hyma, The Youth of Erasmus. New York: Russell & Russell, 1968. pp.xxii + 402.
Article in Journal or Book Albert Hyma, "Erasmas and the Oxford Reformers," Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedemis XV (1932): 69-92, 97-134.
Article in Journal or Book Albert Hyma, "Erasmas and the Reformation in Germany," Medievella et Humanistica, VIII (1954).
Book or monograph Jardine: Erasmus, Man of LettersLisa Jardine, Erasmus, Man of Letters. Princeton University Press, 1995. Pbk. ISBN: 069100157X. pp.296. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Desiderius Erasmus (Dr. Tod E. Jones)View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Etsuro Kinowake, "Philosophia in the Writings of Erasmus," Toronto Journal of Theology 8.1 (1992): 134-147.
Article in Journal or Book Friedhelm Kruger, "Bucer and Erasmus," Mennonite Quarterly Review 68.1 (1994): 11-23.
Book or monograph John Joseph Mangan, Life, Character and Influence of Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, 2 Vols. New York & London, 1927.
Book or monograph Bruce E. Mansfield, Phoenix of His Age: Interpretations of Erasmus c.1750-1920. University of Toronto Press, 1979. ISBN: 0802054579. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph James Kelsey McMonica, English Humanists and Reformation Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965. Hbk. ISBN: 0198214502. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph McMonica: ErasmusJames Kelsey McConica, Erasmus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. Pbk. ISBN-13: 978-0192875990. pp.112. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Karl August Meissinger, Erasmus. Berlin: Nauck, 1948. pp.410.
Article in Journal or Book Clarence Miller, "Current English Translations of the Praise of Folly," Philology Quarterly, XLV, 4 (1966).
Book or monograph Robert Henry Murray, Erasmus and Luther: Their Attitude to Toleration. London: SPCK, 1920. pp. xxiii + 503.
Book or monograph Hilmar M Pabel, Erasmus' Vision of the Church. Sixteenth Century Essays & Studies, Vol 33. Truman State University Press, 1995. Hbk. ISBN: 0940474352. pp.170. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Hilmar M. Pabel, "Erasmus of Rotterdam and Judaism: A Reexamination in the Light of New Evidence," Archiv fur Reformationsgeschichte 87 (1996): 8-37.
Article in Journal or Book Hilmar M. Pabel, "Retelling the History of the Early Church: Erasmus's Paraphrase on Acts," Church History 69.1 (2000): 63-85.
Book or monograph John B. Payne, Erasmus: His Theology of the Sacraments. Richmind, VA: John Knox Press, 1969. pp.341.
Article in Journal or Book Margaret Mann Phillips, "Erasmus," Theology 72(594) (1969): 531-535.
Book or monograph Margaret Mann Phillips, Erasmus and the Northern Renaissance, 2nd edn. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1981. Hbk. ISBN: 0851151515. pp.173. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph H.C. Porter & D.F.S. Thompson, Erasmus and Cambridge. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963. Hbk. ISBN: 0802051251.
Article in Journal or Book Bernard M.G. Reardon, "Erasmus and the Reformation," Downside Review 92.4 (1974): 221-232.
Book or monograph E.E. Reynolds, Thomas More and Erasmas. Fordham University Press, 1965. Hbk. ISBN: 082320670X. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Anne Richardson, ."Tyndale's Quarrel with Erasmus: A Chapter in the History of the English Reformation," Fides et Historia 25.3 (1993): 46-65.
Article in Journal or Book Joachim Rogge, "Zwingli and Erasmus," Arbeiten zur Theologie, XI (1962).
Book or monograph Erika Rummel, Erasmus' Annotations on the New Testament: From Philologist to Theologian. Erasmus Studies, No. 8. Toronto: University of Toronto Press Inc., 1987. Hbk. ISBN: 0802056830. pp.246. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Erika Rummel, Erasmus and His Catholic Critics. Bibliotheca Historia & Reformatorica, 45. 2 Vols. Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1989. ISBN: 9060044010. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and SalvationGordon Rupp & Philip Watson, eds., Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation, new edn. Westminster John Knox Press, 1978. Pbk. ISBN: 0664241581 {CBD} {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Desiderius Erasmus (Joseph Sauer)
Book or monograph R.J. Schoek, Erasmus of Europe: The Making of a Humanist 1467-1500. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991. Hbk. ISBN: 0748601678. pp.432. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Frederic Seebohm [1833-1912], The Oxford Reformers. John Colet, Erasmus and Thomas More. London: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1896. Hbk. pp.551. [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book J.K. Sowards, "Erasmus and the Apologetic Textbook: a Study of the De Duplici Copia Verborum ac Rerum," Studies in Philology, LV (1958).
Article in Journal or Book J.K. Sowards, "The Teo Lost Years of Erasmus," Studies in the Renaissance, IX (1962): 161-86.
Book or monograph Lewis William Spitz, The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963. pp. viii + 369.
Book or monograph Craig Thompson, Ten Colloquies of Erasmus. Macmillan, USA, 1957. Pbk. ISBN: 0024206202. pp.208. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Craig Thompson, Colloquies of Erasmus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965. Hbk. ISBN: 0226214818. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Craig Thompson, Translations of Lucian by Erasmus and St. Thomas More. Ithaca, NY, 1957.
Article in Journal or Book Craig Thompson, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte XLVI, 2 (1955): 167-95.
Article in Journal or Book J.A.K. Thomson, "Erasmus in England," Bibliothek Warburg Vortrage (1930-31): 64-82.
Book or monograph J. B.Trapp, Erasmus, Colet and More: The Early Tudor Humanists and Their Books. British Library Board, 1991. Pbk. ISBN: 0712302565. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Herman Jan Jozef Wachters, Erasmus. Amsterdam, 1936. pp.1975.
Article in Journal or Book D.P. Walker, "Musical Humanism in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries," Music Review II, I (1941): 1-13.
Article in Journal or Book Edgar Wind, "'Aenigma Termini' the emblem of Erasmus," Journal of the Warburg Institute, I (1937-38: 66-69.
Book or monograph Edgar Wind, Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance, new edn. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967. Pbk. ISBN: 0140550097.
Book or monograph Woodward: Desiderius Erasmus. Concerning the the Aim and Method of EducationWilliam Harrison Woodward, Desiderius Erasmus. Concerning the the Aim and Method of Education. University Press of the Pacific, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 1410200388. pp.264. {Amazon.com}

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