The Crusades


The conquest of Jerusalem by the Mohammedans,1 and the insults offered to the most sacred memories of the Christian world, roused such a feeling of shame and indignation throughout Christendom, but especially in Western Europe, that a series of wars, called crusades, from the cross which was worn by all partici-pants as a badge, was undertaken for the purpose of reconquering Palestine. The chief motive power in this movement was at first pure religious enthusiasm, helped on, it may be, by the ample ecclesiastical indulgences and great social exemptions which were granted to all who took the cross; and the idea which precipitated whole nations like a rushing stream towards the Holy Land, no doubt continued to be the principal impulse in many a noble heart. But gradually the restless and adventurous spirit of the age, which, in this fight for the glory of God, found satisfaction for its coarsest cravings without any disturbance of its gross superstition, transformed the religious contest about the Holy Land into a romantic tournament between the Christian knight and the Moslem warrior; and finally political ambition and commercial greed degraded the whole undertaking into a mere means of intrigue, speculation, and fraud. The number of these wars is seven; but there were several minor expeditions, such as the premature rushing-owards under Peter the Hermit, the Children's Crusade, etc., which are not counted, because they miscarried at the very outset.

1 An inaccurate, offensive and obsolete name for Muslims. It should not be used by modern writers.
Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. p.576. Footnote mine


Book or monograph Aziz S. Atiya, ed. The Crusade, History and Bibliography. Bloomington, 1962.

Primary Sources

Book or monograph Jame A. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary Survey. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1962. Pbk. ISBN: 0874624231.
On-line Resource The Crusades (Medieval Sourcebook)
Book or monograph Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 13 Vols. London, 1890-1897.

Secondary Sources

Book or monograph Malcolm Barber, Crusaders and Heretics, 12th - 14th centuries. Aldershot: Variorum, 1995. Hbk. ISBN: 0860784762. pp.299.
Book or monograph Ernest Barker, The Crusades. London: Oxford University Press, 1923. reprint: Ayer Co. Publications, 1977. Hbk. ISBN: 0836958233. pp.112.
Book or monograph Meron Benvinisti, The Crusaders in the Holy Land. Jerusalem, 1970 / New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1972. Hbk. 0025092502.
Book or monograph Billings: The Crusades: a HistoryMalcolm Billings, The Crusades: a History, revised edn. Tempus Publishing, 2000. Pbk. ISBN: 0752417878. pp.192.
Book or monograph James A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader. London / Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969. ISBN: 0299054802. pp.244.
Book or monograph Christiansen: The Northern CrusadesEric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades: The Baltic and the Catholic Frontier 1100-1525, new edn. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1997. ISBN: 0140266534. pp.320.
Book or monograph Penny J. Cole, The Preaching of the Crusades to the Holy Land, 1095-1270. Medieval Academy Books, No 98. Cambridge, MA: Medieval Academy of Amereria, 1991. Hbk. ISBN: 0915651033.
On-line Resource Crusades (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition)
Book or monograph Costen: The Cathars and the Albigensian CrusadeMichael Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade. Manchester University Press, 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 0719043328. pp.240.
On-line Resource The Church and The Crusaders
On-line Resource Selected Sources: The Crusades. (Internet Medieval Sourcebook)
Book or monograph Response R.Y. Ebied & D. Thomas, eds., Muslim-Christian Polemic During the Crusades: The Letter from the People of Cyprus Ibn Abi Talib al-Dimashqi's Response. Leiden: Brill, 2005. Hbk. ISBN: 9004135898. pp.376.
Book or monograph Fonnesberg-Schmidt: The Popes and the Baltic Crusades 1147-1254Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades 1147-1254. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Hbk. ISBN-10: 9004155023. pp.304.
Article in Journal or Book Bernard Hamilton, "The Impact of Crusader Jerusalem on Western Christendom," Catholic Historical Review 80.4 (1994): 695-713.
Book or monograph P.M. Holt, ed. The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades. Warminster: Aris & Philips, 1977. Hbk. ISBN: 0856680915.
Book or monograph Norman Housley, The Italian Crusades. The Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusades against Christian lay Powers, 1254-1343. Oxford University Press Reprints distributed by Sandpiper Books, 1982. Hbk. ISBN: 0198219253. pp.306.
Article in Journal or Book Norman Housley, "Crusades Against Christians: Their Origins and Early Development, c.1000-1216. P. Edbury," ed., Crusade and Settlement. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985.
Book or monograph Housley: The Later Crusades, 1270-1580Norman Housley, The Later Crusades, 1270-1580. Oxford University Press, 1992. Pbk. ISBN: 0198221363. pp.538.
Book or monograph John L. La Monte, Feudal Monarchy in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100-1291. Cambridge, MA: Periodicals Service Co., 1932. Hbk. ISBN: 0527016853.
Book or monograph Harold Lamb, The Crusades, Iron Men, and Saints. New York: Doubleday, 1930.
Book or monograph Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, rev.. London, 1926. Reprinted New York: Ams Press, 1978. Hbk. ISBN: 0404582702.
Book or monograph Madden: A Concise History of the CrusadesThomas F. Madden, A Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 0847694291. pp.192.
Article in Journal or Book Christoph T. Maier, "Crisis, Liturgy and the Crusade in the Twelfth and Thirteemth Centuries," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 48 (1997): 628-57.
Book or monograph Mayer: The CrusadesHans Eberhard Mayer, The Crusades. Oxford,: Oxford University Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0198730977. pp.364.
Book or monograph Maier: Preaching the CrusadesChristoph T. Maier, Preaching the Crusades: Mendicant Friars and the Cross in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pbk. ISBN: 0521638739. pp.214.
Book or monograph Dana C. Munro, The Kingdom of the Crusades. New York, 1935.
Book or monograph Louis J. Paetow, ed., The Crusades and Other Historical Essays presented to Dana C. Munro. New York: Ayer Co Publishers 1928. Hbk. ISBN: 0836903544.
Book or monograph James M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990. Pbk. ISBN: 0812213238. pp.33-47.
Book or monograph Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions. Oxford University Press Reprints distributed by Sandpiper Books, 1980. Hbk. ISBN: 0198225369. pp.536.
Book or monograph Joshua Prawer, The Crusaders' Kingdom. European Colonialism in the Middle Ages. New York, 1972.
Book or monograph Joshua Prawer, The World of the Crusaders. London,: Quadrangle Books, 1972. ISBN: 0297995375. pp.160.
Book or monograph Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem: 1174-1277. London: Shoe String Press, 1973. Hbk. ISBN: 0208013482. pp.351.
Book or monograph Jonathan Riley-Smith, What Were the Crusades? London: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 1977. Hbk. ISBN: 0874719445. pp.92.
Book or monograph The Oxford History of the CrusadesJonathan Riley-Smith, ed., The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Pbk. ISBN: 0192853643. pp.470.
Book or monograph Louise & Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095-1274. Documents of Medieval History, 4. Edward Arnold, 1981. Pbk. ISBN: 0713163488. pp.191.
Book or monograph Stephen Runciman, A History of the Crusades, 3 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Hbk. ISBN: 0521205549. pp.466.
Book or monograph John J. Saunders, Aspects of the Crusades, 2nd edn. University of Canterbury Publications, No. 3. Christchurch, New Zealand: 1962. ISBN: 0389011282. pp.91.
Book or monograph Maya Schatzmiller, ed., Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria. Leiden / New York / Cologne: Brill, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 9004097775. pp.248.
Book or monograph Sylvia Schein, Gateway to the Heavenly City: Crusader Jerusalem and the Catholic West (1099-1187). Church, Faith & Culture in the Medieval West Series. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004. Hbk. ISBN: 075460649X. pp.282.
Book or monograph Schmidt: The Popes and the Baltic Crusades 1147-1254Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades 1147-1254. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Hbk. ISBN: 9004155023. pp.304.
Book or monograph Kenneth M. Setton, ed. A History of the Crusades, 6 Vols. 4 completed. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1977. Hbk. ISBN: 029906820X.
Book or monograph Seward: The Monks of WarDesmond Seward, The Monks of War, revised. Arkana, 1995. Pbk. ISBN: 0140195017. pp.416.
Book or monograph Maya Shatzmiller, ed., Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-century Syria. Mediaeval Mediterranean Series, Vol. 1. Leiden: Brill, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 9004097775. pp.235.
Book or monograph E. Silberry, Criticism of Crusading 1095-1274. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Book or monograph R.C. Smail, The Crusaders in Syria and the Holy Land. Ancient Peoples and Places, No. 82. London: International Thomson Publishing, 1974. ISBN: 0275465101.
Book or monograph Smail: Crusading Warfare (1097-1193)R.C. Smail, Crusading Warfare (1097-1193), 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, 1994. Pbk. ISBN: 0521458382. pp.310.
Book or monograph William B. Stevenson, The Crusaders in the East, 1907. International; Books Centre, 1976. Hbk. ISBN: 086685035X.
Book or monograph Strayer: The Albigensian CrusadesJoseph R. Strayer, The Albigensian Crusades. University of Michigan Press, 1992. Pbk. ISBN: 0472064762. pp.283.
Book or monograph Palmer A. Throop, Criticism of the Crusade. A Study of Public Opinion and Crusade Propaganda. Perspectives in European History, No. 12. Porcupine Press, 1975. Hbk. ISBN: 0879916184. pp.291.
Book or monograph Christopher Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095-1588. University of Chicago Press, 1988. Hbk. ISBN: 0226820122. pp.492.
Book or monograph William L. Urban, The Baltic Crusade, 2nd edn. Lithuanian Research and Studies Center. ISBN: 0929700104 .pp.366.

Related Subjects
1st Crusade | 2nd Crusade | 3rd Crusade | 4th Crusade | Children's Crusade | 5th Crusade | 6th Crusade | 7th Crusade