First Crusade (1096-1099)

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The first crusade (1096-99) was led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine; Hugh of Vermandois, a brother of the king of France; Robert, Duke of Normandy, a son of William the Conqueror; Bohemund of Tarent; and Tan-cred of Hauteville, the son and the nephew of Robert Guiscard, etc. The powerful address of Urban II., delivered to an enormous audience at Clermont in November, 1095, and answered with an unanimous "God will it!" may be con-sidered as the real starting-point of the first crusade. The organization of so huge an enter-prise was, of course, slow and difficult. Aug. 15, 1096, was fixed as the day on which the armies should begin to move. But people could not wait. One swarm started in March under Peter the Hermit, another a little later under Walter the Penniless, a third under Gottschalck; but all these swarms, after committing horrible excesses and crimes, melted away under the resist-ance and punishment of the Magyars, the Slavs, and the Greeks. The regular armies, moving by sea and by land, united in Constantinople in the last days of 1096; and June 24, 1097, Nicaea was captured; but Antioch was not taken until June 3, 1098; and Jerusalem not until July 15, 1099. All the Jews in the city were burnt alive in the synagogue: all the infidels - some say seventy thousand - were massacred. Through the desolate streets the victors went in a proces-sion to the Church of the Resurrection, singing their hymns, and wading in blood. Shortly after, the kingdom of Jerusalem was established, and Godfrey was made king. The sources to the history of the first crusade, reports by eyewit-nesses and contemporaries (among which the Historia de Hierosolyma, by William of Tyre, is the most important), are collected in Bongarius: Gesta Dei per Francos, Hanover, 1611.

Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. pp.576-77.

Secondary Sources

Article in Journal or Book E.O. Blake, "A Hermit Goes to War: Peter and the Origins of the First Crusade," W.J. Shiels, ed., Monks, Hermits and the Ascetic Tradition. Studies in Church History, Vol. 21. 1984. pp.79-107.
Article in Journal or Book Marcus Bull, "The Roots of Lay Enthusiasm for the First Crusade," History 78 (1993): 353-72.
Book or monograph Robert Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade. Berkeley, 1987.
Book or monograph France: Victory in the EastJohn France, Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 0521589878. pp.441.
On-line Resource A.C. Krey, The First CrusadeA.C. Krey, The First Crusade. Princeton & London: Princeton University Press, 1921. Reprinted: Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. ISBN: 978-1725218321. pp.318. [Sign-up to Perlego and access book instantly]
Book or monograph Logan: A History of the Church in the Middle AgesF. Donald Logan, A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London & New York: Routledge, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0415132894. pp.118-128. [Sign-up to Perlego and access book instantly]
Book or monograph Madden: A Concise History of the CrusadesThomas F. Madden, A Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 0847694291. pp.17-37.
Book or monograph Robert L. Nicholson, Tancred. A Study of his Career and Work in their Relation to the First Crusade and the Establishment of the Latin States in Syria and Palestine. AMS Press, 1978. Hbk. ISBN: 0404154255.
Sign-up to Perlego and access book instantly Riley-Smith: The First Crusade and the Idea of CrusadingJonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986. . ISBN: 0812213637. Reprinted: London: Continuum, 2003. ISBN: 9780826484314. pp.240. [Sign-up to Perlego and access book instantly]
Book or monograph Runciman: The First CrusadeSteven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1: The First Crusade. Harmonsworth: Penguin Books, 1991. Pbk. ISBN: 0140137068. pp.400.
On-line Resource G.S.M. Walker, The Growing Storm. Sketches of Church History from A.D. 600 to A.D. 1350G.S.M. Walker, The Growing Storm. Sketches of Church History from A.D. 600 to A.D. 1350. London: The Paternoster Press, 1961. Hbk. pp.252. View in PDF format pdf [All reasonable efforts have been made to contact the copyright holder of this article without success. If you hold the rights, please contact me]

Related Subjects
1st Crusade | 2nd Crusade | 3rd Crusade | 4th Crusade | Children's Crusade | 5th Crusade | 6th Crusade | 7th Crusade

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