Oct. 3, 1187, Jerusalem was taken by Saladin, and Gregory
VIII. preached a new crusade. Frederic Barbarossa of Germany, Phillippe Auguste
of France, and Richard I. (Coeur-de--Leon) of England, followed the summons;
and all Christendom paid the Saladin tithe to support the undertaking. Frederic
Barbarossa forced his way through Asia Minor, but was drowned in the Kalykadnus
(.July 10, 1190); and his army was much reduced when it reached Acre, led by
his son, Frederic of Sua'bia. The French and English kings arrived by sea,
splendidly equipped, and in full vigor; but the siege of the city was long, and
cost, it is said, about three hundred thousand lives; and, immediately after
its capture, Phillippe Auguste returned to France. Richard continued the
contest, but rather as if it were only a chivalresque tournament between
himself and Saladin; and the result was very meagre, - permission for the
Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem. He left the Holy Land in 1192; but on
his journey back to England he was captured by Duke Leopold of Austria, and
sold to the emperor, Henry VI., who, to the great scandal of the whole
Christian world, made a good bargain by exacting an immense ransom.
Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious
Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical
Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Toronto, New York & London: Funk &
Wagnalls Company, 1894. p.577.
J. Nicholson, The Chronicle of the Third Crusade: the Itinerarium
Peregrinorum Et Gesta Regis Ricardi, new edn. Paperback - 422 pages new
edition. Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2001. Pbk. ISBN:
||Peter W. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem
and the Third Crusade, new edn. Ashgate Publishing Limited, 1998. Pbk.
ISBN: 1840146761. pp.206.
||Thomas F. Madden, A Concise
History of the Crusades. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2000. Hbk.
ISBN: 0847694291. pp.65-97.
||James Reston, Warriors of God: Richard the
Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade. Anchor (UK), 2002. Pbk. ISBN: