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Fourth Crusade (1200-1204)

Synopsis

How the spirit from which the crusades originated had changed in the course of little over a century, became sadly apparent when Innocent III. preached the fourth crusade (1203). A number of the most distinguished noblemen- Thibaut of Champagne, Simon of Montfort, Baldwin of Flanders, etc. - assembled at Venice with about twenty thousand combatants. But Venice demanded eighty-five thousand marks silver for the transfer of the crusaders to the Holy Land; and, as they were unable to pay this sum in cash, they went first to Dalmatia, where they conquered Zare for Venice, and then to Constantinople, which they also conquered (April 12, 1201), and where they established a Latin Empire under Baldwin of Flanders. To the Holy Land they never went. The Pope felt shocked, and summoned a new crusade. He was answered by the children. In France arose a movement in 1212 which even the government was not able to suppress. Thousands of children, boys and girls, often of the tenderest age, took the cross, and rushed in feverish enthusiasm towards the Holy Land. Some swarms reached Italy; and there they melted away, by hunger and disease, in the waves, and in the slave-mar-kets. Two regular armies were organized in 1217 by Andrew II. of Hungary, and Count William of Holland. But, Andrew having left the enterprise with the best part of his troops, the rest of the armies went, not to the Holy Land, but on a robber-expedition to Egypt, where most of them perished in the Nile floods.

Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. p.577.

Primary Sources

Book or monograph Andrea: Contemporary Sources for the Fourth CrusadeAlfred J. Andrea, Contemporary Sources for the Fourth Crusade. Leiden: E J Brill, 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 9004117407. pp.426. Amazon.com

Secondary Sources

Book or monograph Angold: The Fourth CrusadeMichael Angold, The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context - the Medieval World. Medieval World Series. Longman, 2003. Pbk. ISBN: 0582356105. pp.344. Amazon.com
Book or monograph Bartlett: An Ungodly WarWayne Bartlett, An Ungodly War: The Sack of Constantinople and the Fourth Crusade. Sutton Publishing, 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 0750923784. pp.256. Amazon.com
Article in Journal or Book G.R. Evans, "The Attack on the Fourth Lateran Council," Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum 21 (1989): 241-66.
Book or monograph Harris: Byzantium and the CrusadesJonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades. Hambledon and London Ltd., 2003. Hbk. ISBN: 1852852984. pp.256. Amazon.com
Book or monograph Logan: A History of the Church in the Middle AgesF. Donald Logan, A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London & New York: Routledge, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0415132894. pp.188-193. Amazon.com
Book or monograph Madden: A Concise History of the CrusadesThomas F. Madden, A Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 0847694291. pp.99-122. Amazon.com
On-line Resource The Fourth Crusade (Medieval Tymes)
Book or monograph Sir Edwin Pears, The Fall of Constantinople, Being the Story of the Fourth Crusade. Cooper Square, 1975. Hbk. ISBN: 081540493X. Amazon.com
Book or monograph Philips: The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of ConstantinopleJonathan Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. Jonathan Cape, 2004 Hbk. ISBN: 0224069861. pp.320. Amazon.com
Book or monograph Queller: The Fourth CrusadeDonald E. Queller, The Fourth Crusade. The Conquest of Constantinople: 1201-1204, rev.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977. Hbk. ISBN: 0812217136. pp.376. Amazon.com
Book or monograph Donald E. Queller, Medieval Diplomacy and the Fourth Crusade. London: Variorum Reprints, 1980. Hbk. ISBN: 0860780597. Amazon.com

Related Subjects

BiblicalStudies.org.uk  
TheologicalStudies.org.uk  
EarlyChurch.org.uk
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