Clare (1193/4 - 1253)

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CLARE, St and the Clarisses. Clara Sciffi, b. at Assissi, l194, d. there Aug. 11, 1253, belonged to a distinguished family, but left her home in 1212 to follow St. Francis; practised, under his guidance, the severest asceticism; founded the order of the Nuns of St. Clare, or the Clarisses; and was canonized by Alexander IV. shortly after her death. The order received its rule from St. Francis in 1224, enjoining absolute poverty, temporary silence, fasting, etc. This rule was mitigated in 1246 by Innocent IV., and again in 1264 by Urban IV., after whom those who adopted only the mildest form of the rule were called Urbanists. In the fifteenth century, however, the development took the very opposite direction. Colette of Corbie (d. 1447) founded the Congregation of St. Colette, whose members bound themselves to a strict observance of the original rule. In 1631 Francisca of Jesus Maria, belonging to the house of Farnese, founded the Congregation of the Strictest Observance; and in 1676 Peter of Alcantara founded the Congregation of the ilermitesses of Alcautara, both of which went still farther in austere asceticism.

Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. p.489.

Primary Sources

Book or monograph R.J. Armstrong, OFM Cap., translator. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New York, Paulist Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0809130122. pp.345.
Book or monograph Francis & Clare: The Complete WorksFrancis & Clare, The Complete Works, Translator R..J. Armstrong, OFM. Cap. & I. Brady, OFM. Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1982. Pbk. ISBN: 0809124467. pp.256.
Book or monograph St Clare of AssisiChristopher Stace, translator. St Clare of Assisi. Triangle, 2001. Pbk. ISBN: 0281052948. pp.160.

Secondary Sources

Book or monograph Marco Bartoli, Clare of Assisi. London: Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd, 1993. Pbk. ISBN: 0232520267. pp.256.
Book or monograph C.N.L. Brooke, "St. Clare," Derek Baker, ed. Medieval Women, Dedicated and Presented to Rosalind M.T. Hill on the Occasion of Her Seventieth Birthday. Studies in Church History, Subsidia, 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. ISBN: 0631192603. pp.275-87.
Article in Journal or Book Pierre Brunette, "Francis and Clare of Assisi: A Journey into Symbols of Growth," Studia Mystica 12.1 (1989): 6-20.
Article in Journal or Book F. Edward Coughlin, "Clare of Assisi: A Paradigm for Building Partnership," New Theology Review 9.1 (1996): 58-70.
Book or monograph E. Gilliat-Smith, Saint Clare of Assisi: Her Life and Legislation. 1914.
Article in Journal or Book Timothy J. Johnson, "Visual Imagery and Contemplation in Clare of Assisi's Letters to Agnes of Prague," Mystics Quarterly 19.4 (1993): 161-172.
Article in Journal or Book Mary Walsh Meany, "Choose to Live According to the Perfection of the Holy Gospel: Saint Francis and Saint Clare as Spiritual Guides," Chicago Studies 38.1 (1999): 50-59.

Related Subjects
Peter Abelard | Aelfric | Alcuin |Anselm | Augustine of Canterbury | Thomas Becket | Bede | Benedict | Bernard of Clairvaux | Boniface | Thomas Bradwardine | Bruno | Catherine of Siena | Charlemagne | Charles Martel | Clare | Clovis | Columba | Dominic | Duns Scotus | Dunstan | Meister Eckhart | Desiderius Erasmus | Francis of Assisi | Gottschalk | Gregory I | Gregory of Rimini | Gregory of Tours | Hildegard of Bingen | Hugo of St Victor | Ignatius Loyola | Innocent III | Isidore | Joachim of Fiore | John Huss | John of Damascus | John of Wesel | Jerome of Prague | Julian of Norwich | Marjory Kempe | Ramon Llull | Nicholas of Cusa | Nicholas of Lyre | Patrick | Pepin (Pippin III) | Peter Damian | Peter Lombard | Peter the Venerable | Photius | Richard Rolle | Scholastica | Thomas Aquinas | Wilfred | William of Ockham | William of St-Theirry | John Wycliffe

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